World Diabetes Day 14th November 2022 – Diabetes Awareness

world diabetes day 14th november 2022 – diabetes awareness

14/11/2022

World Diabetes Day 14th November 2022 – Diabetes Awareness

As the world observes diabetes awareness on 14th of November every year, it is essential that we spread the word on the types of diabetes, the causes and symptoms of the disease, and learn about various preventive measures to lead a diabetes-free life.

Diabetes mellitus is a disease that affects the body's use of blood sugar (glucose). Glucose is an essential energy source for the muscles and tissue cells. It is also the primary fuel source for the brain.

The principal reason for diabetes varies depending on the type. However, diabetes, regardless of the type, can result in excess sugar in the blood. Added sugar in the bloodstream can cause serious health issues.

Type 1 and type 2 diabetes are both chronic diabetes conditions. Pre-diabetes and gestational diabetes are potentially reversible diabetes conditions. Pre-diabetes develops when blood sugar levels rise above normal. However, the blood sugar levels are not high enough to be classified as diabetes.

Types of Diabetes

There are several types of diabetes:

  1. Type 1: Diabetes type 1 is an autoimmune condition. The immune system targets and kills insulin-producing cells in the pancreas. It is unclear what causes the attack's origin.
  2. Type 2: When your body gets resistant to insulin, type 2 diabetes develops, and blood sugar levels rise. It accounts for roughly 90% to 95% of cases. Type 2 diabetes is prevalent, according to a dependable source.
  3. Gestational: When a woman is pregnant, gestational diabetes is elevated blood sugar. This form of diabetes is brought on by substances the placenta secretes that block insulin.

Despite having a similar name to diabetes mellitus, diabetes insipidus is rare. It is a distinct illness where your kidneys expel excessive amounts of fluid from your body.

Symptoms

Diabetes's typical signs and symptoms include:

  • Increased thirst and hunger
  • Loss of weight
  • Urinary frequency 
  • Hazy vision
  • Extreme exhaustion
  • Non-healing wounds

Signs in males

Men with diabetes may exhibit the following symptoms in addition to the common ones:

  • A diminished sex urge
  • Erection problems (ED)
  • Weak muscle power

Signs in women

Diabetes in women can cause symptoms like:

  • Dryness of the vagina
  • Infections of the urinary tract
  • Yeast infections
  • Itching, dry skin

Causes

According on the type of diabetes you end up developing, different risk factors apply.

Type 1 diabetes risk factors include:

  • Having a parent or sibling who has type 1 diabetes
  • A pancreatic injury (such as infection, tumor, surgery or accident)
  • Autoantibodies, or antibodies that mistakenly attack the tissues or organs of your own body, are present
  • Physical stress (surgery or illness)
  • Exposure to virus-based illnesses

Pre-diabetes and Type 2 diabetes are both at risk for:

  • Family history of Type 2 diabetes or pre-diabetes (parent or sibling)
  • Being a person of African, Hispanic, Native American, Asian, or Pacific Islander descent
  • Being overweight or obese
  • High blood pressure
  • A high triglyceride level and low HDL cholesterol (the "good" cholesterol).
  • Being inactive physically
  • 45 years of age or more
  • Gestational diabetes or having a baby who weighs more than nine pounds
  • A polycystic ovary syndrome patient
  • A history of cardiovascular disease or stroke
  • Cigarette smoking

Pregnancy-related diabetes risk factors include:

  • Family history of Type 2 diabetes or pre-diabetes (parent or sibling)
  • Being an American of African, Hispanic, Native, or Asian descent
  • Having been overweight or obese before becoming pregnant
  • Being older than 25 years

Diagnosis

Your blood glucose level is checked to diagnose and treat diabetes. Your blood glucose level can be determined by three tests: an A1c test, a random glucose test, and a fasting glucose test.

  1. Fasting plasma glucose test: This test is best performed in the morning following an eight-hour fast (nothing to eat or drink except sips of water).
  2. Random plasma glucose test: There is no requirement to fast before taking this test.
  3. A1c test: Your average blood glucose level over the previous two to three months is provided by this test, also known as HbA1C or glycated hemoglobin test. This examination evaluates the quantity of glucose that has been bound to hemoglobin, the oxygen-carrying protein in your red blood cells. Before this test, you don't need to fast.
  4. Oral glucose tolerance test: In this examination, blood glucose levels are first assessed following an overnight fast. You then sip a sweet beverage. Afterwards, your blood glucose level is assessed at one, two and three hours.
  5. Gestational diabetes tests: There are two blood glucose tests for gestational diabetes if you are pregnant. In a glucose challenge test, you consume a sweet beverage, after which your blood sugar level is measured an hour later. Before this test, you don't need to fast. An oral glucose tolerance test will come next if this test reveals a higher-than-usual amount of glucose (above 140 ml/dL) (as described above).
  6. Diabetes type 1: Blood and urine samples will be taken and examined if your doctor suspects Type 1 diabetes. Checks are made for autoantibodies in the blood (an autoimmune sign that your body is attacking itself). The presence of ketones in the urine is examined (a sign your body is burning fat as its energy supply). These symptoms are a marker of Type 1 diabetes.

Prevention and Control

Your entire body is affected by diabetes. You must manage your risk factors in order to best manage diabetes, which include:

  • By adhering to a nutrition plan, taking prescribed medicine, and upping your activity level, you can keep your blood glucose levels as close to normal as possible.
  • Maintain your triglyceride and blood cholesterol (HDL and LDL levels) as close to the normal ranges as you can.
  • Take control of your blood pressure. Your BP shouldn't be more than 140/90 mmHg.

Treatment

Diabetes treatments vary depending on the type of diabetes you have, how well your blood glucose levels are controlled, and any other underlying medical disorders you may have.

  1. Type 1 diabetes: If you have type 1 diabetes, you must take insulin every day. Insulin production by your pancreas has ceased.
  2. Type 2 diabetes: Dietary and lifestyle modifications like decreasing weight, choosing nutritious foods, and increasing your physical activity level are all possible treatments for type 2 diabetes.
  3. Pre-diabetes: If you have pre-diabetes, the objective is to prevent you from developing diabetes. The focus of treatments is on risk factors that can be managed, like decreasing weight with a healthy diet and exercise (at least five days a week for 30 minutes).
  4. Gestational diabetes: If you have this type and your glucose level is not too high, changing your diet and engaging in regular activity may be your primary treatment. Your health professional may begin administering medicine or insulin if the target goal is still not accomplished or if your blood glucose level is too high.

Some forms of diabetes, such as type 1, are brought on by external sources. Others, like type 2, can be avoided by improving dietary habits, upping physical activity, and decreasing weight.

Medical Disclaimer

Any medical information referred to in or through our blog is provided as information only and is not intended:

  • as medical diagnosis or treatment
  • to replace consultation with a qualified medical practitioner

We highly recommend you consult the medical professionals empanelled with us for specific advice about your situation.

Talk to your doctor about the potential hazards of diabetes. Have your blood sugar checked if you're at risk, and then manage your blood sugar levels according to your doctor's recommendations. Always remember, prevention is always an ideal healthcare strategy that not only improves your overall quality of life but sets you on the right path towards leading a life of fulfillment.